Translated from the original by Costas Balomenos
Picture 1: Bagkavantgkita and Avesta
The latest decades,
- probably due to its geographical location - became the place where many immigrants from different countries, with different cultures and most importantly
a different religion, which due
to ignorance and brings
in a difficult position and surprise
many of the native Greeks. So to help the understanding of different cultures and religiosity
of immigrants, many
of them already are our neighbors, and the following are articles published, dealing with the sacred books of other religions, so that the reader can get a
taste of what about each religion professes... Greece
Wishing our article is to be found complete we quote at the end "the Book of the Dead", which does not belong to a particular religion, but many. At first publish a world map with the distribution of each religion. We believe that we deliver to our readership, which both supported us all these years, one of the most complete our jobs. Before letting you enjoy our investigation, it is worth mentioning how the population is all religion. Invoked the last census found that is from the year 2009:
Major religions of the world (mid 2009)
Chinese folk religion
Below are the religions in alphabetical order:
4. ISLAM OR MOHAMMEDANISM
12. BOOK OF THE DEAD
Picture 2: World Map of religions
1. Avantanas: sacred book of Buddhism, which highlighted the role of the Bodhisattva. The Bodhisattva is brilliant beings who proceed to become enlightened Buddha i.e. But while they have the opportunity to enter Nirvana,
of Buddhists, still with their desire to remain
in this mortal world of compassion for
other beings to help
and contribute to their
salvation. The word avantana
means act that is worthy of respect and admiration, which
can be either an individual sacrifice for the good of
others or the building of a
. The “Avantanas” contain narrations attributed to
the Buddha and have moral
character. It is written in
Sanskrit language. Main lesson drawn is that “arising from white acts white fruits and by black fruits black”. temple of Buddha
2. Ka-tziour, Tan-tziour: Collections holy books of Tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism. These collections are mainly based on Tibetan Buddhist literature, which relies mainly Tantric Buddhism and thrived from the 8th century A.D. and then when began translating from Sanskrit standards. The “Ka – tziour” (bka - 'gyur) is a collection of 100 volumes with contents of the monastic rule and tantric texts. The “Tan – tziour” (Tan - 'gyur) consists of 225 and includes memoranda and a variety of religious treatises.
3. Canon Pali: Holy book of one of the three branches of Theravada Buddhism. Named after the language has been prepared. Also called “Tipitaka” or in Sanskrit “Tripitaka”, something similar to the Greek word “triptych”, which means “three baskets”. It consists of the collections “Binaya Pitaca” which is the lone rule contains the principles and obligations of the Buddhist monastic life, “Shutta Pitaca” that exposes the Buddhist teachings, echoing key the preaching of Buddha, and “Ampintamma Pitaca”, a collection containing analyzes, interpretations and classifications philosophical and psychological theories. This rule was finalized in the first B.C. century in
Lanka ( ) based
on earlier rule was
written in the language of Magadi and who stood
at the third Buddhist
4. Chinese Tripitaka: Collection of Mahayana Buddhism. But it must be said here that the Mahayana Buddhism, unlike Theravada Buddhism has no holy books rule, which was a decision to Buddhist Synod. So the believer depending on which school is giving special emphasis and attention on some of the many texts of Mahayana Buddhism. These are very long secretariat, whose creation began almost 2,000 years ago. Only a minor portion is maintained in Sanskrit, while most are translations into different languages mainly in Chinese, such as “Chinese Tripitaka”. The layout is similar to that of “Canon Pali”. So divided in “Monastic Canon” (Lou), “Teaching” (Ching) and “Scholastic philosophy” (Lun). It is basically the entire library of sacred and secular texts. The oldest list of “Chinese Tripitaka”, from the early 6th century A.D., report 2,113 projects. The latest version of the Japanese Taisho, conducted in 1924 - 1929 runs in 55 volumes, each of which has about 1000 pages. Later it also published and supplement of 35 volumes.
1. Agkamas: Sacred Hinduistic (Hindu) texts contain teachings and ritual. Are known 100 visnouistics, 28 shivaistics and 77 Shactics Agkamas.
2. Aranyakas: Hindu holy books. Their name means “Forest Books”, i.e. destined to someone studying in the solitude of the forest. The “Aranyakas” still the most famous books of Hinduism the 'Brahmins' and address issues typically sacrificial mysticism and symbolism.
3. Vagkavantgkita or Bhagavat - Gita: Hindu religious poem, the inscription means “Song of the Highest” and consisting of 700 verses later incorporated in the famous epic of Hinduism “Machavarata”. Considered one of the masterpieces of world poetry, on par with the Homeric epics and the Song of Songs in the Bible. Its composition is placed between the second century B.C. and in the second century A.D. and has been commented on by the great masters of theology of Hindu god
the main sacred text of this
confession. The “Vagkavantgkita”
negotiates what was said
in the form of a dialogue between the king Ntritarastra and his charioteer of
Santzagia for a battle
that took place between two rival
tribes but relatives of NW India, from
which one has in
the ranks of the Arjuna son of god Indra.
The Santzagia carries
the king of the
dialogue between Arjuna and the god Krishna,
who in principle is presented as mortal, but later
reveals his true nature.
The project is a systematic reference
to the practice of sacrifices that
are the cornerstone of Indian religious tradition, in whose context, the work place
and Yoga, a method for the approximation
of reality, the “Vagkavantgkita”
equates to the absolute beginning of the universe called "Brahman". Above the “Brahman”
in the project, is the Divine, the Absolute, which can make its presence felt in any way it wants.
Towards the end of the work gets philosophical in nature and deals mainly with the theory of knowledge and the qualities
of nature. The dialogue between Prince Arjuna and
Krishna is determined by God, who thus
giving the mortal interlocutor
of divine effulgence and make him agree to give
the final battle, which will be the
triumph of the race Pantavas.
4. Veda or Vedas: Collection of the oldest sacred books of Hinduism, while in the oldest surviving texts integrated form of the family of Indo - European languages. The name Veda declares knowledge and comes from the root vid-, which generated the Greek eidenai (ειδέναι) = know and the Latin videre = see and the German Wissen = Knowledge. The books which are considered by Hindus godsend and include hymns and odes provisions regulating ceremonies and sacrifices lyrical prayers, magic formulas and refrains. These books originally transmitted from generation to generation orally and later captured. The collection is divided into four sections, each from a different school spread of Hinduism: “Rig - Veda”, “Giatzour - Veda”, “Sama - Veda” and “Atharva - Veda”. There are differences of opinion about dating. The prevailing for the 'Rig - Veda "is that it belongs to 1000 B.C. although some of the hymns that were seen as early as 1500 BC Vedic texts are certainly religious, but illuminate simultaneously, except the history of religion, and the social, economic and cultural relations of the peoples of the Indian peninsula earlier era, but of course give accurate chronological data. These are mainly amounts tribes of Aryans, martial tribes from
that invaded to NW India 1500 B.C. around
and proceeded towards the east and
Of the four parts of the collection, the “Rig - Veda” is the oldest and most important in religious significance and contains 1,028 hymns (Soucta) totaling 10,562 turns, which are 10 books (Mandala). The hymns are varying extent, the shortest ……., the most extensive fifty-eight. They are certainly compositions for different seasons, containing hymns to the gods, prayers, curses and mythical narratives. In these invocations are many gods, but the greatest of these is Indra the king of the gods, and Agni, the god of fire. Many hymns contain lyrical descriptions of switching on the fire, the tenders, the preparation and the libation (Soma). Few hymns include historical descriptions, mythical themes and very little cosmogonic and eschatological teachings. Hierarchy in certain pantheon does not exist. The deities are shown to be influenced by the prayers and sacrifices of the people and in return offer wealth in animals, luck in war, while sin is the bond, which is repealed by ritualistic cleansing. During the hymn 10.90 creation of the world is the result of sacrifice and dismemberment of an ancient man (Purusha), which by its members created the universe. This hymn represents the social model of four classes (Varna), because in the description, the Brahmans - priests of Hinduism – comes from the mouth of the dismembered, the Xatries, the royal and military order from his hands, the Vaïsies, merchants, from his thighs and Sountres, the lower class, from his feet.
The “Giatzour - Veda” consists of 5 parts, of which the 4 first parts are characterized as black “Giatzour - Veda” and the fifth as white “Giatzour – Veda”. The black includes interpretative prose texts and white, subsequent to the black, religious rites and prayers. The special feature is the types of sacrifices (Giatzour).
The "Sama - Veda" consisting of three in verse books and four collections of chants. Its content is largely taken from the 'Rig - Veda "is quite primitive melody and refers to provisions that regulate the ceremonies and sacrifices. The “Rig - Veda”, the “Giatzour - Veda” and “Sama - Veda” unity are known as “Triveda” which every Brahmin should possess well.
The “Atharva - Veda”, the fourth part is written in prose, consisting of 20 books, including magical formulas and refrains and rescued two types, the “Saounaka”, which is the most widespread, and “Paipalanta”, which is followed today only a few families in Orissa, a federal state in eastern India. Also contains cosmogonic teachings, but not at the level of “Rig - Veda”. So in a hymn, the year (kala) considered the beginning of all things, while the Book of Hymns “Rohita”, Rohita = red i.e. the sun, celebrated as the beginning of the world.
5. Vedanta: The title of this book means “The end of «Veda».” Is a collection of 108 Hindus, small religious and philosophical texts, belonging to the older “Upanishads”, word for secret meetings and is something similar to the New Testament of Christianity.
When the Brahmins, the priests of Hinduism, they led the Vedic religion to boundless ritualism, religion ended in a technique that interested only order of priests and could not satisfy either the needs of the simple people who sought a faith and a consolation, nor needs of the educated, who were searching for the beginning of things and the essence of life. So the upper classes not only refused the dead ritual, but they created a spiritual movement that found its expression in “Upanishads”.
The "Vedanta" is written in prose and embellished with didactic and - at case -lyrical turns. The oldest, largest and most important texts is “Brichantaranyaka Upanishad” and “Tsantogkia Upanishad”. These texts refer to the problems of “being” and “non-being”, i.e. the existence or non-existence, and in particular show the Atman, the soul - so to speak - of Hinduism, every individual not as a mortal ego, but as a secret presence on the place and time, beyond passion and single, although it exists at all, so coincident with the Brahma, i.e. the ultimate principle of the universe. For the first time with “Vedanta”, salvation is not apparent from the ritual, but from knowledge. The problem here is to find the explanation of how the resulting human and cosmic duality between “is” and “Becoming”, time and eternity, Atman (Atman is perceived here as the “world soul”) and things. Already in some “Upanishads” this process is related to the one with Karma, i.e. the acts that the individual made in life and accordingly gave positive energy or negative energy, and the other with Avintia, the ignorance. Thus supported, that from the ignorance the act follows, that every act drags a chain of thoughts and actions that only knowledge can lead to liberation from the mortal world we live in and that Karma define that the acts of the existence of any person necessarily predetermine new being to be born of the reincarnation or transmigration of the soul. The basic theory of “Vedanta” is monistic. According to this, the only real is “Brahman” or “Atman”, which is not expressed, nor defined, while the world of phenomena, i.e. the external existence (nature, etc.) is an illusion, an illusion, called “Maya”.
6. Brahmans: Sacred texts of Indians, which is commentary on other sacred texts of Hinduism the “Vedas” and the syntax of “Brahmins” is reduced to around 700 B.C. about. His main content is the interpretation of modes of sacrifice, their importance and the relevance of each to sacrifice worldly, physical and other elements and phenomena.
In the field of Hinduism represented by the Vedic religion, the pure ritual gradually gaining more and more importance. Thus in the hymns of “Sama - Veda” and “Giatzour - Veda” the act of sacrifice is the center of gravity of religiosity which the believer manifests, while the deity, which refers to the sacrifice goes into second place. This retreat of divinity in relation to the ritual finding the absolute in “Brahmins”. The rules (vidi) and the explanations (arthavanta) have emerged from the discussions of the Vedic schools. Many times interlocked texts of the “Vedas” with those of “Brahmins”. For example the “Sama - Veda” contains two “Brahmin” or in the White “Giatzour - Veda” belongs the “Satapatha – Brahmins”.
The gods in "Brahman" is the same as the gods of the Vedic religion only some of them change names and destination eg Shiva consecrate by the name Rudra etc. The cosmogony based on the myth of Pratzapati, the deity that created man and who through asceticism (tapas) releases the world. In the "Brahmin" is also the first step in the basic teaching of metempsychosis, after showing for the first time the idea that good deeds can affect the lives of good and those who had offered sacrifices, so in the world beyond to find a new death, and therefore a new birth.
Even the "Brahmins" constitute the initial phase of Indian philosophy and concepts that would later become important, such as the concepts rupees (format, visible) and Nama (name, invisible, inner essence).
7. Gkitagkovinta: Sacred book of Hinduism, the religious most excellent specimen - erotic poetry of
his "miraculous" poet
of Bengal, Tzagianteva (12th century
AD). In this described
the love of Radha and Krishna, the god, the jealousy
between them, their
separation and reunification.
Rada was the most beloved of his
mistresses - wives of Krishna.
They attribute to him and
secret meaning, as
Radha symbolizes the soul that is attractive from the god.
8. Machavarata: One of the two largest national epics of
- the other one is the Ramayana - which is the
ultimate source for knowledge of
Hinduism. It deals with the
conflict of the mythical race of
Kaouravas with another
mythical race of Pantavas.
It also contains huge material from
mythical, cosmological, moral and philosophical traditions of Hinduism. It is attributed to
vocalist Vyasa, who is considered to codified and
other sacred books of Hinduism, the “Vedas”
and “Puranas”. It consists of 100,000 so-called “slokas” and is divided into 18 books. Compared with
the wonderful epics of Homer, the “Iliad”
and “Odyssey” the “Machavarata” is about tenfold. The
religious significance is too
great for the believers of Hinduism and this is
evident from the following proposal
in principle: “Whoever heard this
song, is redeemed from every sin he did with
his word, his act or his mind”. India
9. Upanishads: Mean “secret meetings” and are Hindu sacred texts as supplements and pleadings to “Veda” continuing the collections “Aranyakas” and “Brahman”. These are texts from various ages and are the main source of Brahmanism. Their relationship towards “Vedas” are correspondingly something akin to the relationship of the New Testament against the Old. The “Upanishads” emphasize the unity of Atman and Brahman and are characterized by the fact that the religious stuff prioritize knowledge over anything else.
10. Puranas: The word means “ancient narrations”. Are sacred books of Hinduism, according to “Vedas” of Vedism and Brahmanism. There are 18 different Puranas, of which the most important are the Vagkavat Purana and Vishnu Purana god. The syntax of these various holy books dating from the first centuries of Christianity, but it is obvious that much of the material is reduced to the previous seasons. Under the old definition, a Purana must address the following five issues:
2. Reconstruction, ie the periodic destruction and renewal of the Worlds
3. Genealogy of the gods
4. Seasons of Manu, ie long periods, each defined by a new tribal leader of the human race
5. The history of the genera, namely older and younger royal families, the beginning goes back to the Sun and the Moon.
2. Reconstruction, ie the periodic destruction and renewal of the Worlds
3. Genealogy of the gods
4. Seasons of Manu, ie long periods, each defined by a new tribal leader of the human race
5. The history of the genera, namely older and younger royal families, the beginning goes back to the Sun and the Moon.
In this context the varied inweave mythical, teaching ritual hymnographical etc. material tradition of Hinduism.
11. Ramayana: The most important after "Machavarata" national epic of Indians while Hinduism holy book. His influence on thought and spirit of
North India especially has seen
and labeled by experts and that it surpasses even the
Bible in the spirit of the West.
The work exposes the
struggles of the god Rama, who
thought it was the seventh incarnation of
the god Vishnu, against Ravana,
the chief of the demons Raxa. It consists of 24,000
couplets (slokas), i.e. it has more than twice the extent of the Iliad
and Odyssey combined. Attributed to Valniki, "the first surname of the Indian poet," and is thought to have been written between the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C.
12. Sutras: The third layer of the religious literature of the ancient Indians, after the 'Vedas' and 'Brahman'. These rituals typically written in prose and style of excommunication and destined to be remembered by the students. Distinguished in Sraouta - Sutras, referred in large sacrificial ceremonies in Gkrygia - Sutras, dealing the regulations rituals which become at home, at birth, marriage, death, etc. and Dharma - Sutras to arrange the tasks to each case.
13. Tantras: Indian treatises inspired the stream of Tantrism, one of the oldest trends of Indian religiosity. In Hindu tradition, the Tantras is didactical talks of god Shiva and his wife Devi, while the Buddhist tradition are meditation Buddha as a historical person. These texts have ambiguities in the wording and symbolism, with many elliptical sentences, which were deliberately with a view to not be useful to the uninitiated. The Tantras are usually anonymous, but their synopses and explanatory notes to these are works branded writers. There are even tantric “Upanishads” i.e. other Hindu holy texts, hymns and typical rituals.
1. Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) : It is a collection of sacred books. The establishment of this collection is a kind of list called "rule" followed by a long and complex process which is not in all its phases known. Although several books of the Hebrew Bible are the product collection of texts, such as for example the book of “Psalms” which is a collection of hymns, prayers and other poems, the beginnings of the establishment of the “rule” should be placed in the 5th century B.C., where the priest and secretary of the Jewish community, which had just been established after the captivity of Babylon, modulates the collection of books of the “Law” (Jewish Torah) is known as the “Pentateuch.” Along with the “Law” began to gain normal strength and the collections or words of the prophets reported in works or action attributed to them, as well as poetry collections or works containing words of wisdom and sayings etc. Indeed, as evidenced by the prologue of the Greek translation of a book of the Hebrew Bible, the “Wisdom of Syrah,” already in the second century B.C. had established a collection of holy texts of Judaism, which included three groups of books: “Law,” “Prophets” and “Patria” or “Other Books”. Here and the reference: “That's why my grandfather, Jesus has dealt above all to the study of the law, the prophets and the other ancestral books and became familiar with them.” The existence of a similar collection with a tripartite division “Law”, “Prophets” and “Psalms” and alludes the second holy book of Christianity, the New Testament, the Gospel of Luke: “These I meant by the words I said when I was still with you, i.e. they must all be fulfilled what is written about me in the Law of Moses, the prophets and the Psalms” Luke 24:44. Eventually the “canon” of the Hebrew Bible takes its final form in
90 A.D. a rabbinical synod in
the city of Iamneia in . The “canon” that contains 39 books
divided into 3 groups: “Law,” “Prophets” and “Hagiography.”
The language in which the books were written in the
Hebrew Bible is Jewish,
except for certain parts of the book
Daniel and Ezra are
written in Aramaic, the language that is after
the fifth century B.C. became the vernacular
in the area of Palestine . From the 3rd century BC, because
many Jews living outside Palestine and especially in Alexandria where there was a large and thriving Jewish community,
had forgotten their native language, begins an effort to translate the books of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, the international language of that era, known by the name "Septuagint" or "O’",
because according to tradition, the translation made
to carry 72 (because of
rounding called Septuagint)
Jewish sages who
knew Greek. Below is a list of the books of
the Hebrew Bible, that are called
in Hebrew and next that are known to us: Palestine
Picture 3: The books of the Hebrew Bible
2. Talmud: The word means teaching, study, wisdom. Is the oral tradition of Judaism which was recorded between the 5th century BC and sixth century AD and contains teachings, discussions, opinions and comments of the Law and the Prophets of the Old Testament, wise proverbs, anecdotes and scientific treatises. For this reason it is of great importance and value, and could be described as a kind of general Jewish Literature.
The “Talmud” has two forms, from
Jerusalem or Palestine
and from . The “Talmud” from Babylon Jerusalem or
is the oldest, includes the tradition
of the Jews of Palestine and was written in the 4th century A.D. in
Caesarea of Palestine in Western Aramaic language.
This is 2/3
of the Babylonian shortest because most lost and preserved in fragmentary form. The Babylonian “Talmud”
newer and more extensive,
contains the tradition of Judaism
of Babylon, was completed in the sixth
century A.D., written
in Eastern Aramaic language and is considered by Orthodox Judaism as the
guideline in practice regulating
the daily life of
the Jews. Palestine
The first and oldest part of the "Talmud" is the “Mishnah” namely the repetition and interpretation of the Law, which contains 63 treatises completed at the end of the second and early third century A.D., is written in (after the Bible) Hebrew language otherwise misnaïki, which differs greatly from the biblical to the syntax and vocabulary, and uses many Aramaic, Greek and Latin words. The “Tosefta” is supplement of the “Mishnah” with various provisions which were later added to the original body. Expansion and interpretation of the “Mishnah” is the “Gkemara” as the second and subsequent part of the “Talmud”. This process and clarifies obscurely excerpts of the “Mishnah” and cites on these legal debates eminent Rabbis teachers namely Judaism, rules of ethics and religious life, prayers and wise sayings.
Now as for the understanding of the “Talmud” is achieved through the methods of interpretation of “Halala” and “Chagkada.” The “Halala” is a legal concept and clarifies legal provisions. The “Chagkada” is constructive in nature and aims to historical religious and moral explanation of the “Talmud”. However, the information contained in “Chagkada” historical information is not entirely accurate. Finally, it should be said that this “Chagkada” except religious themes contains metaphysical searches, visions for the future, Mathematics, Medicine, Astronomy, Physics, Botany, etc.
ISLAM OR MOHAMMEDANISM
1. Qur'an: The Qur'an (al-Qur'an) is the holy book of Islam. The Arabic word “Kouran” comes from the Semitic verb qara'a, meaning reading, announcement, preaching. Until the death of Muhammad 632 AD not appear to have been written some version of revelations that Muhammad claims that he received from God/Allah. According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad's successor, Abu Bakr from 632 to 634 AD made an attempt collection and systematization of these revelations. But since circulated several versions of these revelations, the third Caliph Othman the 644 to 656 formed - through a committee - the text of the Qur'an which was recognized as authentic and were ordered to destroy any script or variation.
And it could not be otherwise since the earthly Koran is considered a true copy of uranium which kept constantly with God / Allah. Therefore, it could be in heaven over one Koran. Certainly the idea that formulated by Muhammad in on Quran uranium “Rather it is a glorified Quran (which is written) in table well protected (from conversion and decay)” Qur'an 85:21 - 22 anything but original is.
Exists in Judeo-Christian apocalyptic Secretariat.
Specifically in the Jewish apocryphal book of “Jubilee” which recounts the story of Genesis to Exodus chapter 12. The story then is given in the form of God's revelation to Moses which is based on a source that is written in “heavenly plaques” in “And for this reason the order was written on the heavenly plaques in relation to made this” Jubilee 3:10 but in the 3:31, 4:5, etc. Regarding Christianity is the apocryphal book "The Shepherd of Herma" which asserts that this book is given as a copy any way divine original booklet, Horacio 2:1.
But the revelation of the Koran from the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad “(that) it (the Qur'an) is really the reason one honored messenger (Gabriel), endowed with the strength and position of honor in the Lord of the Throne, by obeying authority there (and) worthy of trust in the transport of inspiration. And (O! People!), Your companion (the Muhammad) is not crazy. And - no doubt - (Muhammad) saw him (Gabriel) in the clear horizon.” Qur'an 81:19 - 23 is likewise on “Jubilee” which reveal that angel of the Lord spoke to Moses what exactly should write in the Pentateuch: “And the angel of the person spoke to Moses by the word of the Lord, saying: Write all the history of creation ...” Jubilee 2:1. Likewise and the apocryphal book of Enoch appears to have been written by Enoch after celestial apparition that the angels revealed to him and even that he learned from the heavenly plaques. Here and the evidence: «And Enoch said: “On children of justice and on the elite of the world and on straightness of the plant I will speak these things, in fact me Enoch I do your will known unto you, my sons, according to what appeared to me in the heavenly apparition, which knew through the word of the holy angels and learned of heavenly plaques”» Enoch 93:2
Then although the text of the Quran is supposed to be itself the Word of God / Allah - something completely understood and respected by us for a loyal Muslim - we note that the first person of the text is not always the God / Allah: sometimes as in the first chapter, addressed the faithful in God / Allah through prayer, other times it is the prophet Muhammad speaks, Chapter 11: 2 to 3 and sometimes as in Chapter 85it is not clear the subject. Let alone the Quran can not be the Word of God / Allah because it is not possible that God / Allah confuses Maria (Our Lady) with Miriam the sister of Aaron, Qur'an 19:27 - 28. Neither is it possible that God / Allah assert that created the stars - which are missiles - to turn away the demons! “And we have indeed adorned the lower heaven (the lowest), with lamps (stars) and we do missiles for (to turn away away) the demons, which is why we have prepared the fiery torture of Fire.” 67:5
In terms of content and structure of the text of the Qur'an, the reader who is addicted to reading the Bible in one big surprise awaits. Because the text of Koran characterized by heterogeneity and deficiency of chronological sequence of events described, so be no internal structure. Besides, the first chapters referring to disclosures made ex post in
the latest revelations made
in advance to the city
of . So the Koran
includes pieces prophetically,
announcing the end of the world, judgment day, threatening
atheists, unbelievers and hypocrites with the worst torture unlike promising reward to believers by
God / Allah and follow after
more narrative pieces
which have borrowed elements from Judaism and
Christianity. Finally, the
whole complemented by some
subparagraphs, relatively few - less than 10% - which can be considered normative, imposing thus a fair. Let us bring an example in Chapter
3. He talks about the
Virgin Mary, the battle of Badr,
the forgiveness of sins, for Heaven and rivers
crossing it, Jesus, for the avaricious, for those who die in battle, and more. Mecca
The Qur'an also called Book is divided into 114 chapters (
), which in turn are divided into subsections (agiat). Each Surat
bears a title as The Cow, The Herds, The Bee, The Most High, etc. Surat
2. Hadith: The religious tradition of Islam that supplementing the Koran and is considered the second source after that. Comes from the Arabic word hadit which means announcement and used in the sense of announcement sayings or way of dealing from Muhammad practical issues of the religion.
The “Hadith” began to be created once after the death of Muhammad, the faithful wanted to refer to a written or oral information about how he had faced various specific problems they had expressed as advice or command, what took place in various questions and how did his followers after the advice from him. Because until the end of the 7th century AD appeared in several short texts claiming to be Prophet but who had mixed pre-islamic or non-islamic elements appeared simultaneously some who were called “men of tradition” in Arabic ahl al – hadith, who were knowledgeable of the genuine traditions oral or written and created the first collections.
But the problem remained how to stand out the genuine from the false traditions. The proposal made by some, that rule authenticity is their agreement with the Koran or frequent use has been found insufficient and so those that were genuine classified into 3 categories:
1. Authenticated (sahih)
1. Authenticated (sahih)
2. Nice (hasan) and not completely reliable
3. Weak (daif), which are treated with great circumspection.
By the end of the ninth century AD the “Hadith” was classified by the name of their institution (musnad). After classified by subject according to the practical needs of Islamic jurisprudence. The most important collection called as - Sahih (The correct) and was made by al - Buhari (810 - 870 AD). In total is 6 collections. The other 5 are as follows: Muslim (817/821 - 875 AD), Abu - Dawud (817 - 888 AD), al Tirmidhi (892 AD), Ibn Madja (824 - 886 AD) and al - Nasa 'i (915 AD).
The 6 collections were considered as normal by the largest tenet of Islam Sunnis who constitute 90% of Muslims worldwide. The other tenet of Islam Shiites have their own “Hadith” considering as genuine those referred to Muhammad’s his son-in-law Ali and his followers.
1. King or Ηingk: Term in Chinese means the book and used to denote a collection of 5 books (Wu - King), which for the Chinese is something respective to the Christian “Bible.” The books of this collection are: I - King (I - King) or Gi - King (Yi - King) which means “Book of Changes” and deals with Cosmology and Oracular, Sue - King (Schu - King) i.e. “Book of sources” and has to do with History, Shi - King (Schi - King) “Book of Odes” and deals with Poetry, Li - Ki (Li - Ki) “Book of Etiquette”, which plays important role in the eastern peoples, especially regarding the typical rituals and Chun - Tsiou (Tsch'un - ts'iu) i.e. “Spring and Autumn”, which deals with ethics. Those projects that traditionally has yielded one of the greatest teachers of the Chinese Kung Fu Tse, known in the West as Confucius, but considered subsequently, it's likely to rescue in their content older material.
2. Stse - shou: A collection of 4 classic books of Confucianism, which, like textbooks Wu - King, belonging to the rule of Confucian literature. The collection Stse - shou, including books post-Confucian era consisting of the Lun – gou, containing conversations of Confucius with his pupils and rulers of his time, the Ta-shio i.e. "Great teaching" and The Kung - Jung that means "Measure and middle." All these are short writings attributed to Confucius’grandson, the Kung - Kich. As a fourth book is recognized the philosophical work of Meng - tse, the known with the Latin name of Mencius (Menkios) who lived from 372 to 289 BC, argued that a state can only stand on moral principles.
1. Avesta: Collection holy books of Zoroastrianism, the Masdakismus of Masdaismus, and Zendismus. The concept of “Avesta” founded on an understanding of each one of the books are:
The “Gkathas” i.e. the Psalms are attributed to Zoroaster, founder of Zoroastrianism and are supposed that the prophet wrote in their half of the seventh century BC somewhere in Central Asia, then entirely inhabited by the eastern Iranian tribes. The “Gkathas” express the religious revolution of Zoroaster in Iranian polytheism. They are 248 turns by 17 chapters of “Jasna”.
Functional texts form the remaining part of “Jasna” = Function. From the language and its contents seems that the authors, downstream of Zoroaster, associated with maintaining older Iranian gods, whom the great prophet had rejected.
The “Visprat” = all referees, is a collection of hymns and invocations, that their content also highlights the deterioration of the teaching of Zoroaster.
The “Giasts” = hymns that help rebuilding of Iranian polytheistic substrate, certifying the common Indo-European root of the religion of the Iranians and Indians and help in understanding the fission of Zoroastrikis faith and the end of Achaemenid religion. In “Giasts” include and hymns to particular gods: the Lady of the waters, Arentvi Sura Anahita = the “Almighty, immaculate Arentvi”, which subsequently evolved in mithraic, masdaic and zendic Anahita, the Tisrya, the deified star Sirius, in Mithras in Verathragna that corresponding to the Hindu Indra in Fravasis, Haoma, in Sraosa etc. Also in many other hymns already found the origin of the epic mythology of Masdaism as well as shows all the mythical rulers from Chousangk until Vistaspa and other leading persons as the great teacher Karsasp the legislature Ourvax - sayias etc. So the “Giasts” is not only the theological basis of arsakidic polytheistic religion, but also the substrate of Sassanian nationalism, which used to overthrow it, leaving most completely inapplicable the sassanidic intention to restore the original Zoroastrian spirit.
The “Vintevntat” which in ancient Persian pronounced “Ventintant” and means “Law against evil spirits”, is rich in epic mythical items and information about cults, types, customs, traditions and social features, and offers excellent image of the end of the Achaemenides and the principle of arsakidikes years. Some other short texts found at the end of the “Avesta”, but some of them were not considered always his segments.
The tradition of “Avesta” is in many questionable. Two originally recorded on golden signs, consequently in Achaemenid cuneiform writing, copies of it must have been lost in the Greek conquest of Persepolis by Alexander the Great, and his extracts have been collected than five and a half centuries after the founder of the sassanidic dynasty Artaxerxes A’ Papacan (Arntasir A’, 224-241 AD), but according to another tradition, more responsive to things, a copy on parchment of the signs had been rescued off the Alexandrian territory area in Adar Gousnap today Taht - e - Suleiman , the main sanctuary space since the Achaemenid year of the limited Zoroaster priesthood. With tradition and recording of “Avesta” in the Sassanid years were associated Tansar, semi-mythical face, Sapour B’ (309-379 AD) and the priest Atourpat, Machraspant ’son, who around 340 AD gave approval to the select the text of the “Avesta”. The confrontation with the Masdakism has revealed serious differences for the credibility of many advertised then as authentic, avestic texts. The same flows and by the configuration of Zervanism and Gkagiomarntism. As the Gousnap Adar had not been destroyed and Tamparistan the current Mazantaran that is an oblong strip of land between the Caspian sea and Elbrouz had changed in venue Sassanids archival material and anti-Muslim nationalists was undertaken an effort rebuilding Iranian national past, but displayed as vindicated within Islam and especially in the Shiite version. In this effort due to it and the oldest today surviving manuscripts of the “Avesta” 13th-14th century AD, which were disseminated to the co-religionists of the Iranian plateau and Zendists of India, where in 1758 found them Abraham Hyacinth Anketi - Ntyperron, the first “iranology” and then other scientists. In rebuilding the whole operation “Avesta” by modern scientists 18th-19th century AD has contributed decisively the translation medium- Persian “meta-vestics” sacred texts and parts mainly to “Jasna” in Sanskrit and Gkoutzrati, which is alive today and Hindi languages, such as Sanskrit course. But these translated parts of the “Avesta” were based on other translations from the mid Persian what are known as Pahlevi. So these are called Zant by the Zendistes and the sacred text “Zend – Avesta”, a term that the scientists wrongly used until the last century. Translations of “Avesta” in mid Persian were aimed at addressing of then ascending Masdakism that the sacred texts were written in the live language of the people and direct and naturally had greater appeal on the spread of Masdakism.
2. Ain - Namé: Sacred masdaistic book of the Sassanids year, which is known only from Arabic translations. Means "Book of Rules" and discusses issues rules of conduct, many of whom were rescued real basis in Shiite Islam. His rhetoric and bombastic tone corresponds to the imperial yard of the sassanid class and the national character of Masdaism.
1. Granth: The name means Bible. Is a collection of 3,384 hymns, which is the holy book of the Sikh religion or Sikhism as they say otherwise. This collection was made in 1604 by Arjuna, the fifth Guru i.e. the teacher of this religion. In the beginning Arjuna codified his personal compositions and the compositions of the four preceding Gurus of the religion which he represented. Later the collection was enlarged, including the composition of Arjuna successors. It also includes lyrics Muslim and Hindu teachers. However, the followers of that religion speak for an anti-Granth i.e. a primary Bible. The definitive conformation was made in 1706 by the tenth Guru, the Gompint Singh, who has proclaimed this as successor in 1708. Either way, however, noteworthy is the fact that the followers of Sikhism attach adoration in it throughout this book. A luxurious copy is always exposed to popular pilgrimage in the “Golden Temple” of Amritsar in India, and every night is a official procession with torchlight provided for overnight accommodation in a marble palace and every morning return to the “golden temple” where believers bedews the pilgrimage with flowers. Indeed, in the era of British sovereignty, were attributed and military honors. The founder of Sikhism, Gnome composed hymns in the language pountzapi. He later recorded with special alphabet, created by the second Guru, the Ankant, known as gourmoukhi.
1. Kotzigki: Collection of Japanese texts, along with the collection Nichongki is the main source of the tradition of the Shinto the Japanese’s traditional religion. The name of the project means a "History of events in ancient times." The work was written in 712 AD with the encouragement of the imperial court, and included the whole mythical and religious material, which until then handed orally. Shall be composed of 3 books, the first of which contains the myths of the gods and the other two traditions for the past of
until the dawn
of historical times. Japan
2. Nichongki: Collection of Japanese texts, along with the collection Kotzigki is the main source of tradition of Shinto the traditional religion of the Japanese. It is understood as "Chronicles of Japan" and is the first official history of the Japanese state, originally written in Chinese. Written in final form around 720 AD and consist of 30 books. Distinguished from Kotzigki - which discusses the mythological and religious material - because it deals exclusively with the historical material of Shinto.
1. Tao - te - king: Holy book of Taoism one of the three main religions of
(the other two are Confucianism and Buddhism). The Tao - te - king means a book (king) with strength (te) of Tao. The word
Tao, which is in
fact pronounced Dao means the road, the direction and in the Chinese
thought is the gravity who has in Greek
philosophy the term “discourse”.
Considered that wrote
Lao - Tse,
the founder of Taoism and consists of 5,000 words and is divided into 81 short chapters. It deals with excommunicated way the ontological and
moral teachings of Taoism.
Indisputably, however, certainly
contains elements of ancient Chinese wisdom. China
1. Anougiogka: Sacred Book of Ntigkampara branch of Jainism or Jinism, Indian ascetic religion, diarchy and atheistic principles. The Ntigkampara claim that the holy Scriptures jainic “Sintanta” destroyed in 789 AD and thus in their place they accept Anougiogka. The word Anougiogka means Reports and is a sacred collection having two old texts as core in the old idiom Prakrit - group of archaic local Indian dialects - supplemented by memos and other subsequent texts.
2. Sintanta: Sacred Book of Svetampara, branch of Jainism or Jinism, Indian ascetic religion, diarchy and atheistic principles. Includes 12 “main parts” called Angas and showing the Monasticism, the principles of the system of Mahavira - modulator of teaching of Jainism in the 6th century BC - the parables and his narrations. Besides the “main parts” contains 12 “minor parts” the Oupangkas, developing methodical teaching of Jainism. The collection includes lowercase and metrical texts and was made up gradually. These texts are written in Prakrit, a group of archaic local Indian dialects.
1. Holy Scripture or Bible: Consists of two large collections of sacred texts, the Old Testament and the New Testament. The word testament means now known as the one last wish. But the Bible, the word means the agreement God has done with people. For the Christian Church, the formation of the list “the rule” of the books of the Old Testament was quite complicated. From the 3rd century BC, because many Jews living outside Palestine and especially in Alexandria where there was a large and thriving Jewish community, had forgotten their native language, began an effort to translate the books of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, the international language of that era, known by the name “Septuagint” or “O’”, because according to tradition, the translation made to carry through 72 (because of rounding called Septuagint) Jewish sages who knew the Greek. But apart from the 39 books of the Hebrew Bible were included and more books, some of which, or parts therefore were not translations from the Hebrew original but written in Greek. The spread of the “translation of the Septuagint” because it helped the Christian missionary, was adopted by the Church as holy Bible without delimited clearly from the beginning, the number of the books, so several local churches to follow various practices. Furthermore the schism Eastern and
and later the
Reformation contributed to different traditions on the issue of the rule so now
we have a different number of books
of the Old Testament. So the tradition
of the Orthodox Church accepts as belonging to
the rule namely “normally”
except the 39 books of the Hebrew Bible and 10
more, the “Ezra Western Church 1”, “Tovit”, “Judith”, “1
- 2 - 3 Maccabaeus” “Wisdom of Solomon”, “Wisdom
of Sirach”, “Baruch” and “Letter of Jeremiah”, i.e. a total of 49
books. The Roman Catholic Church followed a similar practice of accepting 46
books that distinguish into “first-normally” and “second-normally”.
In first-normally includes 39 books of the Hebrew Bible and in second-normally books “Tovit”, “Judith”, “1 - 2 Maccabaeus”, “Wisdom of Solomon”, “Wisdom of Sirach”, “Baruch” (+ “Letter of Jeremiah”) and
Greek additions to the books
“Esther” and “Daniel”. The churches that emerged from the Reformation accepted as normal the 39 books
of the Hebrew Bible. However common element to all
is that they categorize the books into three groups
" Historicals," “Poetics - Didactics" and “Prophetics”
in the series of books to vary in different versions of the Bible.
Adventure analogous to a lesser extent but it has also experienced the “canon” of the New Testament. There is evidence that at the end of the first century or early second century AD collected the letters of Paul in a kind of rule, as also the witness Justin in the middle of the second century AD refers to “the gospels” in plural identifying them as “memoirs of the Apostles”, which were read in worship gatherings of believers along with the writings of the prophets. The question now is, when the gospels with the letters and the other books of the New Testament were established as “Bible” as “New Testament”. We can answer that at the end of the second century AD enumerated as normally most of the 27 books of the New Testament.
Final station in the evolution and the definitive configuration of the rule is the 39th celebratory Letter of the Athanasius (367 AD), which normally referred to the 27 books of the New Testament. Below is the list of books of the Bible according to the Orthodox Church:
BOOK OF THE DEAD
1. Book of the Dead: A collection of texts that contain instructions for eminent death and the trip of the soul in the beyond, of course conceivable, as a place where life goes on. Such books are known from various cultures, from the ancient Greek, where it was cultivated as a unique literary genre, "the cathode into Hell", with detailed descriptions of the Underworld. From the world production have survived the books of the dead in ancient Egyptian, Mayas, Tibetan and Islam.
The Egyptian consists of 190 texts, which have diverse extent and importance and come from different eras. In these texts mainly are developed visions of the dead in relation to the mythical cycle of the god Osiris and the practice of magic.
The Maya book does not contain teachings but a typical ritual with instructions and specifications. It has survived in 3 manuscripts (
Paris, Dresden and Madrid), where the Spaniards have brought from America to
According to this book, death is not an end, but
an evolution phase from life to death and from
death to life, realized with
reincarnations and implies the
existence with no eschatological end and transformation
of live and dead.
Unlike the Maya book, the book of
guide to absolve the man from
the cycle of reincarnation and the final redemption of life. So the believer
is guided to outstrip death, treating him as a redemptive event. The known form of text is from the 14th century, but it seems that this is based on texts by 8th-9th
century AD, salvaging
traditions of the 4th-5th century AD. This book has
special importance for the
tradition of Buddhism and Tantrism.
The Tantrism is
another trend from the many that
exist, of the Indian religiosity, expressed by the religions
of Hinduism and Buddhism. While in Hinduism
are instructional conversations between the god Shiva and his
wife Devi, while in Buddhism are the meditations
of the Buddha as a historical person. Tibet
In the Islamic book, the writing is attributed to the Prophet Muhammad, death is the beginning of new life and the life of embodied station is a long journey of the soul. So for the believer death loses its terribleness and becomes an opportunity to think the man the omnipotence, the tool and the justice of God (Allah) and it is precondition for reaching the final destination.
- Educational Encyclopedia: Religions
- Anastasios Giannoulatos: Traces of seeking the transcendental.
- Greek Bible Society: The Bible
- Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.
Writer Christos Pal