ΤΑ ΑΝΩΝΥΜΑ,
ΤΑ ΥΒΡΙΣΤΙΚ
Α
ΟΠ
ΩΣ ΕΠΙΣΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ ΑΣΧΕΤΑ ΜΕ ΤΟ ΘΕΜΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΣΧΟΛΙΑ ΘΑ ΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΟΝΤΑΙ. ΜΕΧΡΙ ΤΙΣ 19 - 12 - 2012 ΑΝΑΡΤΟΥΣΑΜΕ ΤΑ ΑΝΩΝΥΜΑ ΣΧΟΛΙΑ. ΑΠΟ ΚΕΙ ΚΑΙ ΜΕΤΑ ΤΑ ΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΟΥΜΕ.

Τελευταία Νέα του "Αντιαιρετικός"

Ευχαριστούμε όλες και όλους εσάς που αναδείξατε τον "Αντιαιρετικό" σε πεδίο ελεύθερης έκφρασης και διαλόγου. Ήδη τα σχόλια ξεπέρασαν τις 18.000!!!...ΜΕΧΡΙ ΤΙΣ 19 - 12 - 2012 ΑΝΑΡΤΟΥΣΑΜΕ ΤΑ ΑΝΩΝΥΜΑ ΣΧΟΛΙΑ. ΑΠΟ ΚΕΙ ΚΑΙ ΜΕΤΑ ΤΑ ΔΙΑΓΡΑΦΟΥΜΕ.

24 Φεβ 2018

THE FASTING OF THE FIRST CHRISTIANS IN THE PERIOD OF EASTER



Translated from the original by Costas Balomenos



I
n many believers (or not) there is confusion about the ecclesiastical things and habits that occur within the Church. They believe namely, that what is done and has prevailed today in this was entrenched from the initial appearance of Christianity. Of course it is needless to say that this view is incorrect and that the Church - as a living organism that is - passed several phases during all these centuries, in order to arrive in some things and habits, which have now become established...

One of these is the habit of fasting during the Easter period, which is called Great Lent or Lent.” Therefore is worth to ask ourselves if there was this fasting from the early years of Christianity in the whole Church, which was not fragmented - like today - and the first Christians were fasting the same number of days with us (in modern times) and ate the same foods that we eat?
Fasting Easter had not defined, because he had not determined exactly what day and what date should be celebrated Easter, so that no are fasting all believers the same given number of days. Irenaeus of Lyon, in 192 AD, wrote to Bishop Victor of Rome, who he had preached the believers of the East as unsociable, who they celebrated Easter on a different date than the believers of Rome, with a view to conciliation and peace of the separated churches: The controversy is not only for the day, but for this same the kind of fasting. Because, others think that should fast one day, others two, others more, others do calculate their day in forty hours at day and night. Such variety on the way compliance was not done in our time, but much oldest at the times of the our earlier, who - without pay attention to the precision as shown - they observe the simplistic and peculiar habit and they passed all this to subsequent, and yet all they are pacified and we are in peace between us and our disagreement with fasting enshrines the concord as to the faith.” Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History E’ 24, 12-13.
Usually therefore were fasting for two days. Most, in the evening were stopping fasting, but there were others who were fasting two days continuously, namely forty hours. Many even Christians, taking initiative - at their own will - they made ​​“overlay”, namely they subsequently extended their fasting after the evening of the same day. Nevertheless, by an aversion of Eusebius of Caesarea, it seems that some believers did not fast at all. Eusebius of Caesarea writes, on the occasion of the convening of the First Ecumenical Synod from Constantine the Great, in which - as is known - was defined and the date of Easter: So while in this issue (note namely the timing of Easter) the omnipresence folks disagreeing already old and aunts provisions were confused, so much so that at one and the same celebration, the time difference to be in great dimension the celebrants, of which some were practiced with fasts and discomforts, while others spend their time in comfort, no man was able to find a cure evil and the relentless brawl were continuing between the two parts. To the life of Constantine King, Logos C’ 5,2.
As we are informed by Dionysius of Alexandria, in the first half of the 3rd century AD, the days fasting of the believers are growing in the period before Easter. The duration of fasting is now a whole week. Some Christians were doing again superpositionof two, three or four days, while others were not making superposition”. But others do not were fasted at all. Dionysius of Alexandria writes then: “They do not keep all equal and similar the six days of fasting, because others are fasting two days, another three days, others four days and others not at all”. I wonder what they ate the believers during the fasting period. Does the same foods that we eat today? Such as we were informed, the believers were applying the dry food, i.e. bread, salt, water and sprouts.
We are finding difference and at the end time of fasting. Other they were stopped the fasted state on Saturday night and others Sunday morning, at the time when the rooster was singing, so this time moment was called “alektrofonia” by the word “alektor” (αλέκτωρ in Greek), which means the rooster. In the church of Rome the believers have the habit to stop the fasting of Easter at the time of “alektrofonia”. But where did come that difference? Dionysius of Alexandria informs us about this fact. He says therefore that the difference arose, because the time of Christ's Resurrection was not clearly identified.
With the passage of time, the days of fasting - before Easter - progressively are increasing. Already, a few years before the convening of the First Ecumenical Synod, this fasting is increased to forty days “fortieth” or “Lent”. It is said that it was imported into the lives of the faithful, in the period who were made the persecutions (306-323 AD) from Maxentius, Licinius, Maximinus, who was co-rulers of Constantine the Great in the Roman Empire and before become autocrat. Because of persecutions, many believers resorted to the countryside and into the wilderness to be saved. Therein came into contact with ascetics, who were fasting forty days, imitating the Lord, who was fasted in the desert similar number of days. These affect the faithful, who admire them and they want to emulate them for the wonderful their fight. Parenthetically to mention, that according to St. John Chrysostom, fasting of Lent, of Easter is not done for Easter or for the Cross, but for our sins, because Easter is not a matter of fasting and of mourning, but of gladness and joy. That is why we should not say that we mourn for the crucifixion of the Lord, but for our own sins.
But apart from the ascetics, to the issue of fasting exert great influence on believers the called abstemious. But who are they? Let's see immediately below. From the ecclesiastical writer Moussano, who acted in the second half of the second century AD, we learn about a misbelief that appeared in those years under the name “the heresy of Egkratites or Egkrateftes or abstemious”, in which they had seduced many believers. He, however, who popularized it more and is considered the pre-eminent leader, is the apologist Tatian, who there was and a disciple of the witness Justinus. As the witness Justinus was living, Tatian had not dared to manifest his teaching, which manifested after his death. The abstemious preached the celibacy, characterizing the marriage as prostitution and wear, not hesitating even to accuse God because he created man to a man and a woman. They were teaching that marriage comes from the devil. They not were eating meat, because they believed - possibly from Pythagorean influences - that the animals have a soul as the man. Also were rejecting and the salvation of Adam.
But fasting of fortieth or Lentbefore Easter, not prevailed everywhere and evenly, because was presented and fasting of two - three weeks, as in the church of Rome, in the middle of the fourth century AD. Others did not fast entire a week, but two or three days, and thereby they had completed the fasting period of two - three weeks before Easter. But again, after - even partial - acceptance of fasting of fortieth or Lent” before Easter from several churches, the things were still confusingly. And this was happening because there was a difference in the temporal duration between East and West. In East were fasting seven weeks, whilst six in the West. Fasting for one more week in the East was because they did not fast on Saturdays except on Holy Saturday. Let us allowed at this point to make a necessary parenthesis to make ourselves understood.
In the first years of Christianity in Rome was presented the peculiarity to fast the faithful and Saturday, except the known fasting which was becoming Wednesday and Friday. Until then were fasting only one Saturday, this of Holy Week, but later the fasting was extended to all Saturdays. Although fasting was combated from Tertullian and Hippolytus, the Synod of Elvira was stipulated that “liked to be corrected the fallacy, to make superimpositions every Sabbath day”.
It seems that fasting was derived owing to prolongation (superimposition) of fasting at Friday. This fasting they had not in France, Northern Italy and North Africa. But prevailed in the West after the decision of Pope Innocent I (401-407 AD) and was introduced in the church of Alexandria. It was attempted introduction and in the church of Syria, but it met reaction and is not prevailed. Indeed we have a testimony of this fact, the spurious letter of Ignatius of Antioch To the Philippesians, which is considered that it was written at the end of the fourth century AD and characteristically says: “If someone fasts, but one Saturday of Easter, this is killer of Christ”. So that is why in the East, to the fasting before Easter, was added one week extra because, as mentioned above, there did not fast on Saturdays except on Holy Saturday, aiming to extend the time of fasting, thereby complementing the forty days.
During fasting there was variety in the foods that was consuming. Other were eating only dry bread, some wrists and eggs, some others fish and poultry. This variety of foods to eat during the fasting period was happening because there were no written orders for the type of food, but one rule of the session of Laodicea, which was convened in 364 AD: “That should not at the last week of Lent to becomes catalysis on Thursday, and to be dishonored the whole Lent, but need throughout Lent be fasting with dry food” Rule N (50). This rule is ordering “dry food” i.e. human consumption of plant foods without oil. Foods with oil were eating on Saturday and Sunday or not were eating such foods Wednesday and Friday. During the "fortieth" were eating only once a day, the 9th hour, i.e. at 3 in the afternoon, and this was the mainly fasting, but were not complying Saturday and Sunday.
In the middle of the sixth century AD there was a more stringent fasting in March, which was distinguished by that of Easter because of the strictness. This fasting, together with others, of the other celebrations was named Quatember, and not was spread beyond Rome.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Ioannis Anastasiou: Ecclesiastical History
2. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, Volume 2
3. Eusebius of Caesarea, The Life of King Constantine
4. Nicodemus the Athonite: Helm

Writer Christos Pal

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...